1. The epistemological problems posed by apparition narratives are touched on by Michael McKeon in The Origins of the English Novel, 1600–1740, 83–87, and discussed (with regard to some nineteenth-century novels) by Srdjan Smajić in “Supernatural Realism,” 1–22.
Baine, Rodney. Daniel Defoe and the Supernatural. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1968. Print.
Defoe, Daniel. An Essay on the History and Reality of Apparitions. Ed. Kit Kincade. New York: AMS Press, 2007. Print. (abbr. as HRA).
- - -. The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner. Ed. Thomas Keymer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print. (abbr. as RC).
- - -. The Political History of the Devil, as well Ancient as Modern (1726). Ed. Irving R. Rothman and R. Michael Bowerman. New York: AMS Press, 2003. Print.
- - -. Serious Reflections During the Life and Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, with his Vision of the Angelic World. Ed. G. H. Maynadier. New York: George D. Sproul, 1903. Print. (abbr. as RC iii).
Hunter, J. Paul. The Reluctant Pilgrim: Defoe’s Emblematic Method and Quest for Form in Robinson Crusoe. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1966. Print.
Hutcheson, Francis. Essay Upon the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections, with Illustrations on the Moral Sense. Ed. Aaron Garrett. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2002. Print.
- - -. An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue. Ed. Wolfgang Leidhold. Indianapolis: The Liberty Fund, 2004. Print.
McKeon, Michael. The Origins of the English Novel, 1600–1740. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987. Print.
Novak, Maximillian E. Daniel Defoe, Master of Fictions: His Life and Ideas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.
Smajić, Srdjan. “Supernatural Realism.” Novel: A Forum on Fiction 42.1 (Spring 2009): 1–22. Print.
Starr, G.A. Defoe and Spiritual Autobiography. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965. Print.
Watt, Ian. The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding. London: Chatto & Windus, 1957. Rpt. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1963. Print.