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Ancients and Moderns and the Public Use of Learning



1. See Victor Davis Hanson, “Idealism and its Discontents: Thinking on the Neoconservative Slur (; on Hanson’s meetings with Cheney, see Jacob Heilbrunn, “Winds of War” (

2. For the attribution to Berkeley, see A.A. Luce, “Berkeley’s Essays in the Guardian.”

3. On money as a sign or token, see also Berkeley’s Querist, Query 2; on money as a stimulant to labor or industry, see Querist, Query 32. For Berkeley’s philosophy of money, see Constantine G. Caffentzis, Exciting the Industry of Mankind.

4. Euphranor is quoting from Seneca’s Moral Epistles CIV, in which Seneca advises his friend Lucilius to study the thought and examples of the great philosophers; the quotation is from his discussion of Socrates, who lived “in [a period of] liberty [that was] more savage than wars or tyrants”—that is, during the radical Athenian democracy of the fifth century BCE (206).


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———. Essay Towards Preventing the Ruine of Great Britain. London, 1721. Print.

———. The Querist, Concerning Several Queries Proposed to the Consideration of the Public. 1735. Dublin, 1735. Print.

———. A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge. Ed. Jonathan Dancy. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Print.

[Berkeley, George]. The Guardian 77 and 83. The Guardian. Ed. John Calhoun Stephens. Lexington, KY: The UP of Kentucky, 1982. 284−86, 302−305. Print.

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Caffentzis, Constantine G. Exciting the Industry of Mankind: George Berkeley’s Philosophy of Money. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000. Print.

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Hanson, Victor Davis. “Idealism and its Discontents: Thinking on the Neoconservative Slur.” National Review Online 21 Jan. 2005. Web. 2 May 2013.

———, and John Heath. Who Killed Homer? The Demise of Classical Education and the Recovery of Greek Wisdom. New York: The Free Press, 1998. Print.

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Heilbrunn, Jacob. “Winds of War,” New York Times Oct. 15, 2006. Web. 2 May 2013. Heilbrunn2.t.html.

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Luce, A.A. “Berkeley’s Essays in the Guardian.” Mind 52.207 (1943): 259. Print.

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